Our regular life is based on different materials which we are able to see with our eyesight and

feel with our sensory glands. These living or non living objects have dimensions, which means

they are in a shape and size smaller or bigger, a presence. This presence of materials has

dimensions, particle existence in this environment. In our world this presence of particles has

three existing dimensions which are depth, length and width. When we see an object we see and

touch we feel the length, the width of the particle and even though we cannot see the inner depth

we can see the outer size and feel the size when we see it. These three parameters are from

Euclidian Space and related to it the measurements we have in mathematics is called Euclidian

Geometry.This whole concept of dimension is called three dimensional space.But today our

main concept is one increment of dimension which is called forth dimension. Shall we go

forward and learn to know what actually this fourth dimension contains and how it works.

Definition

Normally if we think a normal object like a rectangular box which has a equal four side length, a

equal four side width and this length and width gives this rectangle box a space which it

occupies with a depth. In normal Euclidian geometry we multiply this three parameters (X,Y,Z)

and get the total measurement of cubic sphere. But here the question comes, what is the fourth

dimension? In mathematics forth dimension is a concept which gives better idea on this three

dimensional space an extended version.Let’s think of a rectangular box with equal height, width

and depth and another rectangle box inside which is connected to each other with the edge point

of both box. In mathematics this box has a continuous motion of the first one side, let’s say the

right side of the width and length of the box get enlarged as it goes more to the right side of the

box and the upper portion of the box moves to the left and squeezes into the smaller box. Again

the same process is reoccurring and boxes are changing their position by enlargement and

squeezing within the area.

In Astrophysics and space criteria Einstein has given a clearer idea on the fourth dimension

with the Theory of Relativity and Special Relativity. Before him Professor Harmann Minkowski

had given attention to the fourth dimension which they called Time. Harmann Minkowski said

the importance of time variables with spatial dimensions. How these both are connected

simultaneously with each other. In Special Relativity and general relativity space-time was first

introduced in the Minkowski structure.

In superstring theory spatial dimensions are not three or four, it is said that dimensions have

eleven parameters. They are discussed in Super symmetry where it is said that all particles has

another partner particle which has same force within the particle but different in spin

nature.This eleven dimensional assumption is coming from Super gravity theory which contains

gravitron, gravitino, 3 – form of gauge field and their relation with super symmetry which is

fixed. But yet there is no actual proof of this theory as any physical proof has not been found yet

to prove this theory. But in 1990 again everyone got interested in fact because of the low energy

limit and M theory. String theory has different aspects with different locations in the universe so

solid proof is yet to be found in this matter.

Descriptions and Example

As per our earlier discussion, we know that Albert Einstein and Harmann Minkowski claimed

time to be the fourth dimension with physics and Astrophysics which is non Euclidian as per the

discussion. But if you ask me, I will tell you something different than that. For example if we try

to discuss the rectangular box where smaller dimensions enlarge with motion and bigger ones

squeeze and again recursively the same thing happening continuously with motion, here motion

is the time parameter we can consider. With motion and enlargement of the box, the situation is

not static, it is moving. Time parameter is existing in this situation with the motion and

enlargement of the box. Motion is continuous and continuity requires a time parameter. Now

even if it is in super gravity and movement is happening at the speed of light which is universal

still it will require one second of time and if it is faster than light then the box will move slowly

towards time and time will dilate and it will face a length contraction.

Again directly if we talk about two rail station A start point and B end point. A train starting

from A station and going to station B, another train is leaving from station B and coming to

station A at the same, both trains will cross each other at a point and as it is moving ahead in

time it is moving ahead towards destination as well. Even if both the train is static and not

moving anywhere forward still time will go forward. Time is a parameter which always

incrementing with the number of one second either object is moving or static. Because earth is

not static, it is moving in its rotary axial path continuously in Its own axis and by it, it is moving

around the sun too. In space where we have lesser gravitational force still we can count the time

with the movement on particles. And this theory was given in Theory of relativity, special

relativity, field theory by Einstein in summation of the theories it is called The Theory of

Everything. In Euclidian perspective the motion a particle gets in space is time because there is

no gravity in outer space so particles will surely move.

With all our facts and logic it is almost undeniable that time is another existing dimension in

this universe. Our universe’s natural law is that time is a parameter which is continuously

growing with one second of time.Either three dimensional object is static or moving. Even with

super symmetry if we say gravitational difference can make an object faster or slower, faster

than light speed of an object will face time dilation. So even though this super string theory is

not fully proven, there is a hope in near future it will come true.

*By- Naila Huq*